I. TECHNIQUES OF STAR ANISE GROWING
1. Climatic and land conditions
a) Climatic conditions
Star anise is a moisture-loving plant suitable for places with an average rainfall of 1,200-1,800mm/year and average annual humidity of 70-80%. The average annual temperature is from 20-210C. Absolute altitude from 200-800m above sea level.
At a young age, star anise is poorly tolerant of high temperatures and direct sunlight, so it needs appropriate shade in the nursery and in the early years of planting. However, the cold tolerance of seedlings is relatively high, and they do not die from frost.
b) Land conditions
Star anise likes thick soil, good drainage, high humus content, pH 4-6, suitable for red ferrite soils, clay shale, and sandstone.
Star anise is not suitable for soil growing on limestone, mixed sandy soil, sandy soil, strongly eroded thin layer soil, the deep area with insufficient light, too high humidity, and degraded turfgrass areas…
2. Planting season
- Spring crop: From January to March
- Summer-autumn crop: From June to August
3. Planting density of star anise to harvest leaves
Planted 5,000 plants/ha (2m row spacing, 1m tree spacing)
Seedling standards: Seedlings should be sown in Polyethylene (PE) pots, grow and develop well, well-developed roots do not break roots, do not cut off tops, do not curl, and do not have pests or diseases. Star anise seedlings must be 12-24 months old, root neck diameter ≥ 5mm, tree height 30-50cm.
5. Planting methods
- Planting method: Star anise can be grown purely by the band, in groups, or in combination with agricultural crops (agroforestry).
- When planting, clear grass and purposeless trees, leaving large purposeful trees about (200 trees/ha) to shade when star anise are young.
- Agroforestry planting: It is possible to intercrop beans or cassava in the star anise garden in the early years.
6. Land preparation, digging holes, filling holes
- Method: Manual farming
- Digging hole: The size of the hole is 30cm x 30cm x 30cm (length x width x depth). When digging, the topsoil is kept separate, the ground soil is kept separate.
- Filling hole: 15 days before filling the hole. To improve the survival rate, it is necessary to fertilize 1 kg of rotting manure or 0.1 kg of NPK fertilizer (5:10:3)/1 hole. When backfilling, use a hoe to scrape the topsoil and dam it down to the hole, when filling up to 2/3 of the hole, spread manure, mix it with soil, then fill the raspberry-shaped hole 3-4cm higher than the crater.
Plant star anise on shady days with light rain or light sunshine and the soil in the hole should be sufficiently moist. Spread and plant them right away, they must be planted in a day. Arrange to plant seedlings from the top to the bottom of the hill.
Use a small hoe or trowel to dig a hole 1-2cm wider and deeper than the length of the pot in the middle of the filled hole. Tear off the cover of the pot and place the seedling upright in the middle of the hole (note that when tearing the cover of the pot, gently avoid breaking the pot). Use loose soil to fill the hole about 2-3cm higher than the natural ground. You can use your hands or feet to gently step on the soil, but avoid damaging the pot. After planting, use dry grass or twigs to cover the base to keep moisture for the tree.
II. CARE FOR AND PROTECTION THE FOREST OF STAR ANISE TO HARVEST LEAVES
1. Taking care
Star anise after planting needs to be cared for 2 consecutive years. Star anise after harvesting leaves needs regular care.
- Taking care in the first and second years: In the first year, take care 2 times in spring crops and once in summer-autumn crops, take care immediately after planting 1-2 months, and plant the affected plants. Taking care in the second year, twice at the beginning of the rainy season and at the end of the rainy season.
Time of care: 1st care from March to May; 2nd care July -October.
Care measures: Clear vines, and shrubs on the planting area. Dig the soil around the base with a diameter of 0.5m, and a depth of 3-4cm.
- Star anise care after harvesting leaves: Star anise after harvesting leaves needs regular care. Clearing vines, shrubs, and invasive weeds, combined with fertilizing with rotting manure or NPK fertilizers to increase yield and leaf quality, fertilizing at the rate of 1 kg of rotting manure or 0.1 kg of manure NPK (5:10:3)/base/year.
- Prohibit grazing livestock in the star anise growing area.
- Regularly check and monitor to detect pests or harmful insects early to take timely remedial measures.
3. Harvest star anise leaves
Star anise planted after 3 years begins to harvest star anise leaves. When harvesting leaves, leave 400 units/ha, leaves and branches are not exploited, and the number of trees left is evenly distributed, to ensure the prevention protection and limit soil erosion. Star anise after harvest needs regular care combined with weeding and fertilizing.